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肿瘤的grade和stage

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发表于 2017-3-5 09:23:13 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
grade是肿瘤的恶性程度的描述,后者stage是肿瘤的扩散情况。
当然这两个指标,在不同的癌种里面意义略微有点区别的

Grading helps us understand how aggressive, or malignant, a tumor is.
Staging tells us if the tumor has spread and if so, how far.

There are four tumor grades — I, II, III, and IV. The higher the grade, the more malignant the tumor.
Tumor grading helps the doctor, patient, and caregivers/family members to better understand the patient’s condition. It also helps the doctor plan treatment and predict outcome.

肿瘤的异质性很高,所以通常里面都不止一种grade的细胞。
Tumors can contain more than one grade of cell. The highest, or most malignant, grade of cell determines the grade of the tumor, even if most of the tumor is made up of lower-grade cells.

肿瘤的扩散能力通常由CT或者MRI来检测。
Staging for central nervous system (CNS) tumors is usually performed based on CT scans or MRI images, or by looking at the cerebrospinal fluid.
Scans taken after surgery are used to determine if any tumor is left behind.
CNS tumors that are usually prone to spread are studied with both scan images and laboratory tests. Patients with medulloblastoma, for example, will often have their cerebrospinal fluid examined for the presence of tumor cells. These patients also require spinal cord scans because of that tumor’s tendency to spread to the spinal cord



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 楼主| 发表于 2017-3-5 11:47:44 | 显示全部楼层
A widely used system for cancer staging is that the cancer tissues are classed into four stages, namely I, II, III and IV, with a higher stage representing a more advanced cancer.Cancer grading is a measure of the malignancy and aggressiveness independent of stage. Unlike staging, cancer grading has been predominantly done through visual inspection of the cell morphology and tissue structure [3], generally lacking in using molecular level information.
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 楼主| 发表于 2017-3-5 11:48:56 | 显示全部楼层
Currently there is no universal grading system for all cancer types, instead research communities of a few cancer types each have developed their own grading systems such as the one for breast cancer developed by Bloom and Richardson [6], the Gleason system for prostate cancer [7] and the Fuhrman method for kidney cancer [8]. While there are some differences in the detailed classification criteria, these grading systems generally classify cancer tissues to four grades: well differentiated (WD), moderately differentiated (MD), poorly differentiated (PD) and undifferentiated (UD).
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